The deep sea or deep layer is the lowest layer in the ocean, existing below the thermocline and above the seabed, at a depth of 1000 fathoms (1800 m) or more. Little or no light penetrates this part of the ocean and most of the organisms that live there rely for subsistence on falling organic matter produced in the photic zone. For this reason scientists once assumed that life would be sparse in the deep ocean but virtually every probe has revealed that, on the contrary, life is abundant in the deep ocean.
In 1960 the Bathyscaphe Trieste descended to the bottom of the Mariana Trench near Guam, at 35,798 feet or 6.77 miles (10,911 meters), the deepest known spot in any ocean. If Mount Everest (8,848 metres) were submerged there, its peak would be more than a mile beneath the surface. The Trieste was retired and for a while the Japanese remote-operated vehicle (ROV) Kaikō was the only vessel capable of reaching this depth. It was lost at sea in 2003. In May and June 2009, the hybrid-ROV (HROV) Nereus returned to the Challenger Deep for a series of three dives to depths exceeding 10900 meters.
TrendThe�increasing demand for deep-sea mining is an emerging mineral processing equipment market trend.In June 2021, the Indian government authorized a deep-sea mining exploration mission to extract multi-needle nodules at a depth of 6,000 meters in the IndianOcean.Robots are ...
Deep-sea mining companies in the Cook Islands have been exploring the country's ocean to see if they can extract potato-sized nodules packed full of minerals kilometres deep ... The license allows the companies to explore the deep sea in the country's exclusive-economic zone (EEZ) ... "What we have found is extensive abundance of these nodules," Smit said.
The exhibition includes modern-day equipment for ocean exploration such as this long-range autosub ... “[The scientists on board] did a lot of stuff, including identifying 4,700 new species unknown to science from the deep ocean. They also collected data on water columns – the different levels of ocean.
Along parts of the sea floor at depths of 4,000 to 6,000 meters (13,123 to 19,685 feet), you can find fields filled with polymetallic nodules, sometimes referred to as deep-sea potatoes, which are loaded with many of the rare metals needed for batteries like cobalt, copper, manganese, and nickel.
They might look like pebbles strewn across the seafloor, but to the unique animals of the ocean deep, polymetallic nodules are a crucial habitat ... Weller said the unique composition of the nodules which attracts mining firms is also what makes them such a special habitat for the creatures that live in the ocean depths.
Manganese nodules are found in the deep ocean.These could be an important source of valuable and relatively scarce metals ... Manganese nodules, also known as polymetallic nodules, can be found in all of Earth’s oceans.
On the ocean floor, there are small rocks known as polymetallic nodules.A view of a collection of polymetallic nodules on the ocean floor ... A few species use nodules to anchor themselves to the ocean floor and will lose their habitat and life without them.A deep sea creature attached to a nodule on the sea floor.
Letters are welcome via e-mail to email@example.com\nProtecting the sea floor\nYou support deep-sea mining as a means of easing the shortage of battery metals (“Give nodules the nod”, July 8th) ...The Economist should be commended for its bravery in coming out in support of collecting deep-sea metal nodules.
Polymetallic nodules collected by The MetalsCompany during a deep sea trial in the PacificOcean in November 2022 ... The company is looking to mine the deep sea with robotic vehicles that suck up the nodules off the ocean floor in a process they say will be less damaging than land-based mining.
But Unclos declared that the deep sea outside the EEZs, known as “the Area”, covering 54% of the world’s oceans, was “” ...Massive machines will scour the ocean bed to pick up polymetallic nodules, destroying everything in their path and creating sediment plumes that can suffocate coral reefs and other organisms hundreds of miles from the mining site.
Over 5,000 species could be at risk if deep sea mining begins in the PacificOcean's Clarion-Clipperton Zone...Industrial mining of the deep ends of the ocean for valuable minerals is becoming more of a possibility as companies search for new sources of needed minerals, such as cobalt and lithium.
If there is a statement against me from an Opposition party \u2013 there is nothing new in that.\u201d Rijiju on Friday said that his priority will be to execute the DeepOceanMission, a flagship scheme of the Prime Minister for exploration of polymetallic nodules containing rich minerals.
Manganese nodules at the bottom of the deep sea contain a wealth of valuable metals that are vital to the electronics and steelmaking industries ... Particularly large quantities of manganese nodules can be found in the deep ocean of the ClarionClippertonZone in the North PacificOcean between Mexico and Hawaii.